Friday, September 2, 2011

the rise of Filipino Nationalism

Chapter 5     STRUGGLE FOR RIGHTS
  AND FREEDOM
1. Revolt of Lakandula and Soliman (1574)
Lakandula and Soliman decided to rise in arms. They proclaimed their revolt and gathered in Navotas.
Cause: Lavezaris’s reversal of Legazpi’s policy of exempting the native rulers from tributes
2.       First Pampanga Revolt (1585)
Some brave Pampangueño leaders connived w/ the people of Manila and the Borneans. The leaders were arrested abd executed w/out any fair trial.
Cause Abuses of the Encomenderos
3.       The Tondo/Maharlika conspiracy
(1587-88)
was a plot against Spanish colonial rule by the datus of Manila and some towns of Bulacan and Pampanga. It was led by Agustin de Legazpi, nephew of Lakandula, and his first cousin, Martin Pangan.The uprising failed when they were denounced to the Spanish authorities by Antonio Surabao (Susabau) of Calamianes
Cause Regain Lost
Freedom
4.       Magalat’s Revolt, Cagayan (1596)
led by Magalat, a Filipino rebel from Cagayan. He had been arrested in Manila for inciting rebellion against the Spanish. He was later released after some urging by some Dominican priests, and returned to Cagayan. Together with his brother, he urged the entire country to revolt.The Spanish Governor-General Francisco de Tello de Guzmán sent Pedro de Chaves from Manila with Spanish and Filipino colonial troops. They fought successfully against the rebels, and captured and executed several leaders under Magalat. Magalat himself was assassinated within his fortified headquarters by his own men
Cause Unjust Tax
5.  Revolt of the Igorots ( 1601)
Spaniards were determined to proselytize the Igorots. An expedition was sent to stop them from resisting to colonial subjugation.
Cause Refusal to Accept new religion
6.  Revolt of the Irrayas, N Isabela in Cagayan Valley (1621)
After the missionaries had left,led by Fray Pedro de Santo Tomas, the Irrayas killed their encomenderos and burned their houses. FR. Santo Tomas returned and promised them that the govt. would pardon them and remedy their grievances. The revolt ended w/out a fight.
Cause Oppression of Spanish Officilas
7.  Revolt of Tamblot, Bohol (1621-22)
Tamblot, a babaylan,, persuaded the natives to abandon Catholicism and rise against the Spaniards. They began their revolt when the most of the Jesuits were away attending the beatification of St. francis Xavier in Cebu. They burned the villages as well as the churches.
Cause Return to Native Religion
8.       Bancao Revolt, Leyte (1622)
was a religious uprising against Spanish colonial rule led by Bancao, the datu of Carigara , in the present-day Carigara Philippine province of Leyte.
Cause Return to Native Religion
9.       Ladia Revolt (1643)
Ladia was a Bornean and a descendant of Lakandula who came to Malolos in 1643.Upon his capture, he was brought to Manila where he was executed.
Cause Spanish oppression
10.      Revolt of Dabao (1650s)
Cause Controversial Decree to send Carpenters to the Cavite shipyard
The rebels who surrendered, who were promised to be pardoned, were either hanged or enslaved.
11.       Sumuroy Revolt, Samar (1649-50)
Cause Forced labor
In the today the town of Palapag in Northern Samar, Juan Ponce Sumuroy, a Waray, and some of his followers rose in arms on June 1, 1649 over the polo system being undertaken in Samar.
12.      Maniago Revolt, Pampanga (1660)
Causes Frequent Recruitment of Men to Cut timber in the Mts. And Bandala.
led by Don Francisco Maniago, initially caused by natives' protest against the polo and bandala, later became a struggle to free the natives from Spanish rule. The rebels were weakened by Gov. de Lara's cooperation of Arayat chief Macapagal.
13.      Malong Revolt, Pangasinan (1660-61)
Causes Spanish Oppression & the desire to Replace Spanish Rulers.
who led some natives in Pangasinan to take up arms against the Spanish government and proclaimed himself King of Pangasinan. However his kingdom was short-lived and soon most of his forces abandoned him, enabling the Spanish forces to capture him and subsequently executed him. Later, Juan dela Cruz Palaris, a native of Binalatongan, led a renewal of the revolt. The Spanish authorities reviewed the demands of the natives and required the alcalde-mayor of Pangasinan to resign. The people of Pangasinan continued their resistance nonetheless, but they finally defeated in March, 1764.
14.      Revolt of Gumapos (1661)
Continuation of  Malong’s Revolt
Pedro Gumapos and his troop of Zambals killed many Spaniards in Ilocos. 400 rebels were slain and Gumapos himself was hanged in Vigan.
15.      Almazan Revolt (January 1661)
Cause Personal ambitions
led by Don Pedro Almazan, illustrious and wealthy leader from San Nicolas, Laoag, Ilocos Norte. The letters sent by Don Andres Malong ("King of Pangasinan") narrating the defeat of the Spaniards in his area and urging other provinces to rise in arms failed to obtain any support among the natives. During the revolt, Don Pedro Almazan auto-proclaimed himself "King of Ilocos", but was later captured and executed.
16.      Revolt of Tapar, Panay (1663)
Cause Found a New Religion under a Native Supervision
Tapar attracted many followers w/ his stories about his frequent conversations w/ a demon. They were killed in a bloody fught against the Spanish.
17.      Revolt of Dagohoy, Bohol (1744-1849)
Cause Refusal to give his brother a Christian burial
-         Bcoz he died in a duel
-         No proper limosnas, church offerings
-         Body was left decompoding for 3 days
18.      Revolt of Silang (1762-63)
Causes  his imprisonment, abusive govt. officials, heavy taxation
Silang was killed by Vicos. Gabriella,his wife, continued the fight. She and her companions were executed in Vigan, Ilocos Sur.
19.      Palaris’s Revolt (1762-65)
Causes Tribute, Spain’s Loss of Prestige due to the British Occupation of Manila
Palaris urged the people to fight since the Spanish were very weak. Palaris was publicly hanged.
20.     Basi Revolt (1807)
Cause wine Monopoly of 1786
Ilocanos were prohibited to drink homemade basi. They were compelled to buy wine from the govt. stores.
21.      Revolt in Defense of the Spanish Constitution
Cause   Abolition of the Liberal Spanish constitution
Upon knowing this, an explosion of violence in the country against the principales took place.
22.     Revolt of the Bayot Bros.
Cause Feeling of Distrust b/w the peninsulares and the creoles
the insulares resented the extra privillages given to the penisulares.
3 Bayot bros. – Manuel, Jose, Juaquin
Their plan was discovered. They were imprisoned after the trial.

23.     Religious Revolt of Hermano Pule (1840-41)
Cause Religious Freedom
Hermano Pule was not able to pursue his priestly vocation. He was not accepted bcoz he was an indio.
He founded Cofradia de San Jose.
He sought recognition of his religious brotherhood, but his confraternity was banned. But he still continued the brotherhood. He was captured and his chopped body was paraded from Tayabas to nearby Lucban.

24.     MUSLIM WARS
The Spaniards made attempts to subdue the inhabitants of Mindanao by deploying its military forces in the South.
Reasons:
·      Spanish Invasion of Mindanao and Sulu
·      Preservation of Islam, and
·      The love of adventure brought about by spoils of wars.
Gov. Francisco de Sande sent forces to Jolo, led by Capt. Esteban Figuerosa. Sultan Pangiran Budiman resisted the attack. But Sulu fell into the Spanish hands. Pearls-tribute.
The Moros avenged by plundering coastal towns under Spanish dominion. Sirungan and Salikala prepared a stronger force of 70 vessels and 4000 warriors, but they were repulsed with heavy losses at Iloilo province by 1000 Visayan warriors and 70 Spanish arquebusiers under Don Juan Garcia de Sierra.
June/23/1635 – A stone fort was built in Zamboanga led by Fr. Melchor de Verea w/ 1000 Visayans.
March/13/1637 – Gov. Corcuerra led his troop at the mouth of Rio grande de Mindanao. Next day, they had Lamitan, Sultan Kudarat’s capital in Cotabato.
After nursing his bullet wound in one arm, Sultan Kudarat later mounted raids  on Spanish settlements in Luzon and Visayas. In 1645, Tausugs finally liberated Jolo. In 1749, Sultan Alimud I was deposed by his bro. Bantilan of his friendship w/ the Spaniards. In 1751, Gov. Gen.  de Obando wanted Alimud Din I to regain his throne in Jolo. The Sultan left Manila and stopped at Zamboanga. The Spanish commander claimed to have intercepted a letter from Alimud din I to a sultan in Mindanao, w/c was allegedly treasonable. He was shipped back to Manila and later imprisoned at Fort Santiago. Gov. Gen. de Arandia later released him and granted him royal privillages. In 1762, he was rescued by the British and restored his throne in Jolo.
The height of the Moro Wars occurred in the second half of the 18th cen. In the closing of the 19th cen. The Moro power declined. In 1848, Gov. Gen. de Urbiztondo attacked the Samals at Balanguingui.
Dec/11/1850 – Gov. Gen. de Urbiztondo left Manila to subjugate Muslims of Sulu. The next month, he attacked Jolo. The natives lost over 100 men. In 1861, the sultan in Maguindanao finally recognized Spanish sovereignity. However, resistance cont. under Datu Ugto in upper Pulangi. In 1874, Gov. Gen. Jose Malcampo prepared a mighty armada for the invasion of Jolo. It lasted for 1 day and on March 1 /1876, Sultan Jamalul A’lam worked for peace w/ the Spanish. He transferred his capital to Maimbung. The Sultanate of Sulu,being a sovereign govt. was able to lease Sabah ( N. Borneo) to a British company, that on Jan. 22, 1878, Sultan Jamalul A’lam leased Sabah to Mr. Alfred Dent,Englishman, and to Baron Gustavus Von Overbeck.
In 1886, Gov. Gen. Terrero led the invasion to Cotabato. They destroyed some forts of Datu Utto  but failed to crush Utto’s fighters. In 1891, Gov. Gen. Weyler, invaded Lanao, that in Aug. 21, 1891 he won the first battle of Marawi in Lanao Lake. Datu Amai Pakpak, the defender of Marawi, was able to escape. He recruited more warriors to fight against the Spanish. However, he was overpowered by Datu Ali Jimbangan and his fierce krismen.
In 1895,  Gov. Gen. Ramon Blanco invaded Lanao Lake region. He attacked Marawi on March 10, 1895 where Datu amai Pakpak died http://www.google.comaction. The Muslim warriors declared a jihad, forcing Blanco and his troop to return to Manila.
Paris Treaty - Ang Kasunduan sa Paris, na nilagdaan noong Disyembre 10, 1898, ay ang nagpatapos ng Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano. Nasasaad sa kasunduan ang pagpapalaya sa bansang Cuba, ang paglilipat ng pamumuno sa Estados Unidos sa mga bansang Puerto Rico at Guam, at ang pagbili sa Pilipinas mula sa Espanya sa halagang $20,000,000 ng Estados Unidos, w/ ended the Spanish domination in the Philippines.
The Treaty of Paris of 1898 was signed on December 10, 1898, at the end of the Spanish-American War, and came into effect on April 11, 1899, when the ratifications were exchanged.The Treaty signaled the end of the Spanish Empire in America and the Pacific Ocean and marked the beginning of an age of United States colonial power.

The Rise of Filipino Nationalism
Factors:
1.        Spread of Liberalism
-         Liberal ideas from Europe filtered in when Spain gradually exposed Phil. To international commerce.
-         The sons and daughters of the principalia were able to attain education, thereupon giving then exposure to libertarian ideas.
2.       Sentiments against the Principales – proportion of the local aristocracy to the broad masses.
3.       Racial Prejudice
-         Inferior race, limited intelligence
4.       Cultural changes
-         Ilustrados
5.       Secularization Controversy
-         Council of Trent – secular priests appointed to parishes. But due to lack of sec. priests, Pope Pius V issued Exponi Nobis (1567) w/c allowed the regular clergy to serve as parish priests w/out diocesan auth. And be exempted from bishop’s auth.
6.       Cavite Mutiny
-         200 Filipino soldiers and dock warriors of Cavite mutinied and killed their Spanish officers led by Sergeant Lamadrid. 2 days after, he was executed together w/ 41 mutineers in Bagumbayan.
-         Some were exiled, hanged, and garotted.
Propaganda Movement
The Propaganda Movement was a literary and cultural organization formed in 1872 by Filipino émigrés who had settled in Europe. Composed of Filipino liberals exiled in 1872 and students attending Europe's universities, the organization aimed to increase Spanish awareness of the needs of its colony, the Philippines, and to propagate a closer relationship between the colony and Spain.Its prominent members included José Rizal, author of Noli Me Tangere (novel) and El Filibusterismo, Graciano López Jaena, publisher of La Solidaridad, the movement's

principal organ, Mariano Ponce, the organization's secretary and Marcelo H. del Pilar.
Summary
In February 17, 1872, Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora, all Filipino priest, was executed by the Spanish colonizers on charges of subversion. The martyrdom of the three priests apparently helped to inspire the organization of the Propaganda Movement, which aimed to seek reforms and inform Spain of the abuses of its colonial government.
The limited higher education in the colony was entirely under clerical direction, but by the 1880s many sons of wealthy Filipinos were sent to Europe to study. There, nationalism and a passion for reform blossomed in the liberal atmosphere. Out of this talented group of overseas Filipino students arose the so-called Propaganda Movement. On December 13, 1888 they established in Barcelona the La Solidaridad.Poetry and pamphleteering flourished. The president of La Solidaridad was Rizal's cousin, Galicano Apacible. Among the other officers were Graciano Lopez-Jaena, vice-president, and Mariano Ponce, treasurer. Rizal, in London at the time, was named Honorary President. Unfortunately, Apacible could not hold the wrangling reformists together. It took the prestige of Rizal and the political wisdom of del Pilar to unite the Filipinos in Spain and to coordinate their efforts. Jose Rizal was this movement's most brilliant figure and his writings had a wide impact in the Philippines. Del Pilar joined the Masonic Order in Spain in 1889, one of the first Filipinos initiated into the mysteries of Masonry in Europe.
Goals:
1.        Representation of the Philippines in the Cortes Generales, the Spanish parliament;
2.         Secularization of the clergy;
3.        Legalization of Spanish and Filipino equality;
4.       Creation of a public school system independent of the friars;
5.       Abolition of the polo (labor service) and vandala (forced sale of local products to the government);
6.           Guarantee of basic freedoms of speech and association;
7.        Equal opportunity for Filipinos and Spanish to enter government service;
8.          Recognition of the Philippines as a province of Spain;
9.       Secularization of Philippine parishes;
10.      Recognition of human rights.
11.       Many Filipinos took refuge in Europe and initiated in Spain a crusade for reforms in the Philippines. The immergence of more Filipino illustrados gave birth to a unified nationalist movement. This campaignwas known in our history as thePropaganda Movement.
the nature of the reform movement
  The middle class denounced Spanish abuses and asked Spain to make the Philippines a province of Spain.
  The reformists believed that the Filipinos would be better off if they were to become Spanish citizens enjoying all the rights and privileges of the latter.
  The assimilation of the Philippines was to be published in a peaceful manner.
Reforms:
  Equality of the Filipinos and Spaniards before the law
  Filipino representative to the Spanish Cortes
  Secularization of Philippine parishes and the expulsion of the friars.
  Human rights for the Filipinos
  Freedom of speech
   freedom of the press
  Freedom to meet/assembly
  Petition for redress grievances
Del Pilar
  A lawyer and journalist from Bulacan
  During Pintakasi (cockfighting day) he spoke out to the crowd by satirizing corrupt officials and friars.
  He sought to reached to people through his pen.
  He wrote anti-friar pamphlets in simple yet forceful Tagalog.
  He helped established the first bilingual newspaper, Diaryong Tagalog
  He became the editor in the Tagalog section.
  He released Dasalan at Tocsohan, a
  manual of anti-clerical commentary in the format of a novena. He parodied Lord’s Prayer, Hail Mary, Apostles creed, Ten Commandments, Act of Contrition.
  Del Pilar’s stay in the country became dangerous.
  His house was burned mysteriously
  He left the country in October 1888 to escape persecution.
Lopez-Jaena
  He wrote Fray Botod/Friar fatbelly in 1874.Looked like hungry mosquito and soon became stout because of the stocks taken from people.Because of his anti-clerical literature, he moved Madrid where he joined other Filipino expatriates "Esperanza," and "La Hija del Fraile," which all criticized the abuses of Spanish friars in the Philippines. Del Pilar was an excellent writer and speaker who put up the newspaper Diarion Tagalog in 1882. His favorite topic was the friars. Some of his most popular writings included "Caiingat Cayo", "Dasalan at Tocsohan," and "Ang Sampung Kautusan ng mga Prayle". "Caingat Cayo" was a pamphlet answering the criticisms received by Jose Rizal’s novel Noli Me Tangere. "Dasalan…" was parody of the prayer books used by the Church, while "Ang Sampung Kautusan…" was a satirical take on the Ten Commandments, which highly ridiculed the Spanish friars.into journalism.
Rizal
  Calamba, Laguna
  1882, he went to Madrid to study medicine
  Socio-historical novel Noli Me tangere in 1887.
  Noli reflected the defects of the Spanish rule in the Philippines, particularly the abuses of the friars.
  The impact of the reading in the Philippines was so intense that it was prohibited in the Philippines.
  “Sa Aking mga Kababata” when he was only eight years old. His novels, Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, clearly depicted the sufferings of the Filipinos and the rampant abuses committed by the friars in the colony. Because of his criticisms of the government and the friars, Rizal made a lot of enemies. He was executed at Bagumbayan (later renamed Luneta Park and now called Rizal Park) on December 30, 1896.
Other great Filipino reformist:
  Perdo A. Paterno, lawyer
  Antonio Luna, pharmacist and essayist
  Pedro Serrano Laktaw, teacher-tutor of Prince Alfonso
  Isabelo de los Reyes, folklorist and newspaperman
  Juan Luna, painter (spoliarium)
  Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo, painter 
La Solidaridad
  “Sol”/newspaper/feb. 15, 1889
  Solidarity/purely Filipino organization
  Established in Barcelona on December 31,c 1888.
  To make known the objectives of the Propaganda.
  It was printed in Barcelona from Feb to Oct 1889
  M.H. Del Pilar - Plaridel
  Rizal – Dimas Alang, Laong Laan
  Mariano Ponce – Naning, Kalipulako, Tigbalang
  Antonio Luna – Taga-Ilog
  Ferdinand Blumentritt
  Miguel Morayta – Rizal’s professor in University of Madrid 
  THE AIMS OF LA SOLIDARIDAD
  To collect, gather libertarian ideas which are manifested daily in the field of politics, science, art, literature, commerce, agriculture, and industry.
  To discuss all problems relating to the general interest of the nation
  To seek solutions to those problems in high-level and democratic manner.
DEL PILAR:
  The removal of the friars and the secularization of the parishes.
  Active participation in the affairs of the government.
  Freedom of speech, of the press, and of the assembly
  A wider social and political freedom
  Equality before the law
  Assimilation
Masonry
  Helped them in their fight for reforms
  Revolucion – 1st Filipino Masonic lodge  founded by Jaena in Barcelona.
  Lodge Solidaridad – in Madrid
  Lodge Nilad – wanted a dignified, free and prosperous country with a democratic regime and genuine and effective autonomy, a good government
  They wanted reforms, representation in the Spanish Cortes
  Declaration of the country as a Spanish country
  With all rights and obligations.
  As of May 1893, the masonic lodges in the country numbered 35, nine of which were in the city of Manila.
  They also accepted women as members.
  Rosario Villaruel – 1st woman to be accepted as member on July 18, 1893.
  Other female members include; Trinidad Rizal, Romualda Ranuza, Josefa Rizal, Marina Dizon, Sixta Fajardo, Valeriana Legazpi, Purificacion Leyva
La Liga Filipina
  Founded by Rizal on July 30, 1892 at the residence of Doroteo Ongjunco in Ilaya, Tondo, Manila.
  Ambrosio Salvador as President
  Deodado Arellano –Vice
  Bonifacio Arellano – treasurer
  Agustin Dela Rosa - fiscal
  Sort of a mutual aid and self-help society, dispensing scholarship funds and legal aids, loaning capital and setting up cooperatives.
  Unus Instar Omnium (one like all)
  Served as an avowal of their ideals.

Objectives:
  Unification of the whole archipelago into one compact
  Vigorous and homogenous body
  Protection in cases of want and necessity
  Defense against violence and injustices
  Encouragement of instruction, agriculture and commerce
  Study and implementation of reforms
The goals of the La Liga were to be carried out by the Supreme Council, Provincial Council and Popular Council. Each member pay 10 centavos as monthly dues, members choose symbolic name.
Most important reforms of the association
  Compulsory teaching of Spanish in all schools
  Suppression of  inhuman punishment in all jails and tribunals of justice
  Establishment of the civil register and the register of deeds
  Abolition of the diezmos prediales and the sanctorum
  Establishments of  secondary schools in 2 or 3 provinces of the archipelago
  Reforms in the University of  Sto. Tomas in order to raise it to the rank of the universities in Spain
  Establishment of agricultural banks
  Initiation of reforms in the public administration
  Construction of good roads and railways
  This situation alarmed the Spanish authority. On July 6, 1892, Rizal was secretly arrested by order of Governor General Despujol and subsequently imprisoned at Fort Santiago. The following day, he was deported to Dapitan, Zamboanga del Norte for his allegedly subversive material. 







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